• Bursitis/Impingement
  • Adhesive Capsulitis (Frozen Shoulder)
  • Dislocation /Instability
  • Labral Tear
  • Rotator cuff tendonitis / Rotator cuff tear
  • Biceps tendonitis
  • OsteoArthritis (OA) of shoulder


Shoulder bursitis (also called subacromial bursitis) occurs when the bursa (a fluid-filled sac on the side of the shoulder) becomes damaged, irritated, or inflamed.

Shoulder impingement syndrome is a condition that develops when the rotator-cuff tendons in the shoulder are overused or injured, causing pain and movement impairments. The tendons, ligaments, and bursa under the “acromion” can become pinched or compressed.

These symptoms can be caused by overuse, OA of the shoulder, trauma, posture, muscle imbalances.

Signs and symptoms: tenderness, limited ROM, weakness and difficulty sleeping on affected side.

Adhesive Capsulitis

Adhesive capsulitis occurs in about 2% to 5% of the American population. It affects women more than men and is typically diagnosed in people over the age of 45.

Adhesive capsulitis is the stiffening of the shoulder due to scar tissue, which results in painful movement and loss of motion. It can happen after a period of immobilization or prolong pain after an injury or surgery.

Four stages:

  • Pre-freezing (pain for 1-3 months)
  • Freezing (pain for 3-9 months)
  • Frozen (pain for 9-14 months)
  • Thawing (pain for 12-15 months)

Dislocation /Instability

While many people associate shoulder instability with a traumatic event such as a dislocation, multidirectional instability (MDI) can occur without trauma.

MDI of the shoulder is defined as generalized laxity (looseness) of the joint due to increased mobility and joint weakness. The shoulder joint may “slip” in and out of its socket in a forward (anterior), backward (posterior), or downward (inferior) direction.

Signs and Symptoms: people report their shoulder will “slip” out and go right back into the socket and may have pain with shoulder (especially overhead) movement

Labral Tear

An unstable shoulder joint can be the cause or the result of a labral tear. “Labral” refers to the ring of cartilage (glenoid labrum) that surrounds the base of the shoulder joint.

Injuries to the labrum are common, can cause a great deal of pain, and may make it hard to move your arm.

A labral tear can occur from a fall or from repetitive work activities or sports that require you to use your arms raised above your head

Some labral tears can be managed with physical therapy; in severe cases, surgery may be required to repair the torn labrum.

Rotatorcuff Tendonitis

Disorders of the rotator cuff and the tissues around it are the most common causes of shoulder pain in people over 40 years of age. Rotator cuff tendinitis occurs when a shoulder tendon (a bundle of fibers connecting muscle to bone) is irritated and becomes sore.

People who perform repetitive or overhead arm movements, such as weightlifters, overhead athletes, and manual laborers are most at risk for developing rotator cuff tendinitis. Poor posture can also contribute to its development

The rotator cuff muscles are a group of 4 muscles that attach the humerus (upper-arm bone) to the scapula (shoulder blade). The rotator cuff muscles help raise, rotate, and stabilize the upper arm. A tendon is a bundle of fibers that connect the muscles to the bone. Rotator cuff tendinitis occurs when the tendon connected to the rotator cuff muscles becomes inflamed and irritated.

Rotator cuff tears are called either “full thickness” or partial thickness,” depending on how severe they are. Tears often develop as a result of either a traumatic event or long-term overuse of the shoulder. These conditions are commonly called “acute” or “chronic.”

Biceps tendonitis

Biceps tendinitis is a common cause of shoulder pain, often developing in people who perform repetitive, overhead movements.

Biceps tendinitis develops over time, with pain located at the front of the shoulder

The biceps muscle is made up of 2 parts: the long head and the short head. The long head of the biceps is most commonly implicated with tendinitis, as the tendon from the muscle runs up the length of the arm and attaches into the shoulder joint. It becomes a part of the shoulder joint capsule, which is surrounded by numerous other structures, including the rotator cuff.